GYOZA HISTORY

Why dumplings are loved around the world.

Is this also dumpling?
Dumplings around the world that
are loved by changing their shape

In Japan, yaki gyoza is the most popular type of gyoza. Many people think of gyoza, which is served on a plate with its crispy side on top.
In China, yaki gyoza is called "Japanese style gyoza" (Japanese-style gyoza) and is generally eaten after being boiled. In recent years,
sui-gyoza has become a hot topic of conversation at popular Taiwanese restaurants in Japan as well,
and is also a popular dumpling dish at dim sum restaurants in Cantonese cuisine.
The clear, steamed dumplings in a steaming basket are also very attractive.
In fact, other than China, where gyoza was introduced to Japan,
there is another kind of gyoza-like dish called "gyoza" in which a variety of bean paste is wrapped in a flour skin.
" is eaten in many parts of the world, as shown on the world map below.

POLAND UKRAINE GERMANY RUSSIA MONGOLIA BURYATIA KOREA USA ITALY GEOGIA JAPAN BRAZIL TURKEY INDIA NEPAL CHINA ARGENTINA

Neighboring Korea's "mandu" (with kimchi, of course)
and Siberia's "bouza" (sounds like dumplings in Japanese) to hat-shaped Russian "perimeni"
and Indian fried dumplings "samosa", the Palestinian soup dumplings "Shish Barak" and "Du Spela", Israeli soup dumplings with yogurt,
like the wontons in Chinese restaurants (I couldn't put it on the map), through Ravioli, Italy, and across the Atlantic.
The "empanadas" of the Spanish-speaking countries of South America
and even the Brazilian fried dumplings called "pasteu" are available to the common people.
The Tokyo Vegan Gyoza is loved by many people as a "gyoza-like" dish.
As a member of a variety of "gyoza-like cuisine" that makes use of the characteristics of the region,
Tokyo Vegan Gyoza aims to make gyoza that is loved by people in Tokyo, Japan, and the world.

  • GERMANY [Maultasche]

    GERMANY[Maultasche]

  • POLAND [Pierogi]

    POLAND[Pierogi]

  • ITALY [Ravioli]

    ITALY[Ravioli]

  • TURKEY [Manti]

    TURKEY[Manti]

  • UKRAINE [Vareniki]

    UKRAINE[Vareniki]

  • GEORGIA [Khinkali]

    GEORGIA[Khinkali]

  • INDIA [samosa]

    INDIA[samosa]

  • NEPAL [Momo]

    NEPAL[Momo]

  • MONGOLIA [Buuz]

    MONGOLIA[Buuz]

  • RUSSIA [Perimeni]

    RUSSIA[Perimeni]

  • REPUBLIC OF BURYATIA [Bouza]

    REPUBLIC OF BURYATIA[Bouza]

  • CHINA [Chinese Dumpling]

    CHINA[Chinese Dumpling]

  • KOREA [Mandu]

    KOREA[Mandu]

  • JAPAN [Gyoza]

    JAPAN[Gyoza]
    (Chinese Dumplings)

  • USA [Potsticker]

    USA[Potsticker]

  • ARGENTINA [Empanada]

    ARGENTINA[Empanada]

  • BRAZIL [Pastel]

    BRAZIL[Pastel]

A dish prepared
by a Chinese medicine doctor
to help people

It is said that Zhang Zhongjing (Zhang Chi), a famous doctor who is considered to be the founder of Chinese medicine,
was the first to make dumplings in China is. He was born in Nanyang County,
Jingzhou in the Later Han Dynasty and studied medicine.
Based on his experience of confronting frostbite, he wrote "The Theory of Cold Wounds and Other Diseases", the original text of Chinese medicine.
He created the "Cold Jiao-Ming Tui" for the poor people living in his hometown, whose ear frostbite could not be healed.
It is said that this was the first dumpling (soup dumpling) to be made in China,
and the custom of eating dumplings with family members during the Chinese New Year continues to this day.
The custom of eating dumplings with the family during Chinese New Year,
which continues to this day, is said to be related to this legend. It is not clear when dumplings were actually made and eaten.

We don't know exactly when dumplings were first made and eaten, but they were made in China.
Dried dumplings have been excavated from the ruins of Tang Dynasty Dunhuang excavated in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region.
They have the characteristics of semi-circular shape with folds in two, which is similar to present day's jiaozi,
and the shape is very similar to the This is truly a "mummy of dumplings".
It is believed that this Chinese dumpling spread to Eurasia with the expansion of the Mongol Empire,
but there is also a theory that it spread from the Middle East to China via the Silk Road,
because of the discovery of food wrapped in flour crusts in the ruins of the ancient Mesopotamian civilization.

Although the origins of dumplings are still a mystery to many people,
I can't help but think that the mission of dumpling cuisine in the future may be embedded in the cultural genes of Zhang Zhongjing,
a medical sage who fought against the pandemic of cold and wounds, at a time when the world is experiencing the corona crisis.

Dried dumplings (bottom) and
a cloud cup (top) excavated
from the Tang dynasty ruins
in Xinjiang's Uighur autonomous
region (from "Uighur Artifacts
from Xinjiang")

Edo Period? After World War II?
The beginning of
Japanese dumplings.

There are many theories about when and how gyoza was introduced to Japan from China,
but the Japanese style Yaki Gyoza became popular after World War II, when repatriates from China began to introduce it in various parts of Japan.
This is because the 14th Division of the Japanese Imperial Army was stationed in Utsunomiya City,
a city famous for its gyoza. Utsunomiya City, which is famous as a city of gyoza,
had the 14th Division of the Imperial Japanese Army stationed in the city.
It is said that he learned about gyoza through his military service in China and it spread after he repatriated.
In addition to Utsunomiya City, Manri in Noge, Yokohama City, has been serving gyoza since early in the postwar period. Known.

The appearance of the character for gyoza in Japanese literature is surprisingly old,
and was published between 1707 and 1708 in In "Zhu Clan Tanki" (also known as "Shunsui Zhu Clan Tanki"),
there is a character for dumpling and its preparation method (with a variety of sweetening agents inside).
It is described in the book "Takuko Chohoho" (Japanese Cooking Book), which was published in 1778 in the Edo period.
In the cookbook Takuko Chofuho, published in 1778 (An'ei 7) during the Edo period,
there are several recipes for frying, baking, steaming and steaming.
The dumplings were introduced along with three cooking methods in
Zhu's Danki is a compilation of questions and answers between Zhu Shunsui,
a Confucian scholar from the Ming Dynasty, who had defected to Japan, and his students.
Tokugawa Mitsukuni invited him to Edo, where he interacted with Mitsukuni and many other scholars.
One of the ideas behind the name "Tokyo" for gyoza,
which can be eaten by anyone regardless of their food preferences, is that he lived in Tokyo.
It is a tribute to the dumplings handed down by the exiled foreigner, Zhu Shunsui.

日本で「餃子」初めて登場する文献の該当ページ

The relevant pages of the documents in which "gyoza" first appeared in Japan
(Zhu Danki, Kokubunbunshu Kenkyu Shiryokan
(Ugai library),
Shin Nihon Kotoki Sogo Database)

References.

  1. 1) Haruko Sugigita: "Wrapping" is deep! Kyoko Hagino, Eurasian cuisine researcher, Gyoza, pp.92- 101 (2019).
  2. 2) Toshi Segawa: Genki Gyoza is in Taiwan! Winnie Goto, cookery researcher, dancyu gyoza, pp.61- 85 (2019).
  3. 3) Tamaki Itakura: The original model of gyoza is found in Uyghur, would you like to try making "2000 year old gyoza"?
    Supervised by Shauwei, Chinese food researcher, Textbook of Gyoza, How to make the most delicious gyoza in Japan
    and what I want to know now Deep Knowledge. , pp. 78-79 (2016).
  4. 4) Kazuhide Iketaki: A Taste of Japanese Restaurant in Israel, The Depth of Gyoza Spreading Throughout the World,
    The Asahi Shimbun GLOBE+, available at <https://globe.asahi. com/article/13509002> (cf. 2020-07-15).
  5. 5) Paradise Yamamoto: Reading Gyoza, pp. 233-235, Shinchosha (2011).
  6. 6)Cook Inoue: The Brazilian food "Pastelou" is good! Kibon, Asakusa, where you can enjoy Brazilian fried gyoza
    and churrasco, dressing, and where to get it < https://www.gnavi.co.jp/dressing/article/ 20211/> (ref. 2020-07-15).
  7. 7) Yang Donglai: Winter Solstice Dumpling-like Chuanguage, Henan Folk Tales, Yuanliu Publishing (1989).
  8. 8) ZHANG Zhongjing: "Wound-cold theory", Yubinezangban, Nagoya University School of Medicine,
    where the digital archive of modern medicine is available
    <https://www.med.nagoya-u.ac.jp/medlib/ history/archive/print/1816cho.html>(reference 2020-) (07-15).
  9. 9) Hideaki Otsuka: Research on Japanese and Chinese gyoza culture: Chinese cuisine integrated with Japanese cuisine
    and its historical background, FOOD CULTURE No.27, pp.12-13,
    Kikkoman International Food Culture Research Center ( 2017)
  10. 10) Hitomi Taisai et al. (eds.), Zhu's Danki (also known as "Sunsui Zhu's Danki"), National Literary Research Institute,
    Ukai Library, New Japanese Classical Books Comprehensive Database, available at
    <http://codh.rois.ac.jp/pmjt/book/200017278/> (see 2020-07-21).
  11. 11) Exploring the Collection <Block 3> "Sunsui Shuji's Discourse on Color and Form", The Printing Museum, Available at
    <https://www.printing-museum.org/collection/looking/detail.html?mode=detail&number= 74831&syear=1705> (cf. 2020-07-21).
  12. 12) Yin Chong and Lu Rong Zhou: The Introduction and Reception of Gyoza in Japan, Ginnerman (Special Issue)
    pp. 20-35, available at <http://www.l.u-tokyo.ac.jp/nihongo/ginnan-tokubetu.pdf> (2018).

TOP